Nobel Laureate Abel Laureate Advisory Board Member USERN President USERN Policy Making Council USERN Manager USERN Deputy Junior Ambassador

Major: Engineering

Field: Engineering mathematics

Professor of Mechanics, Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Greece
[Director, Laboratory of Mechanics and Materials, School of Engineering ; mom@mom.gen.auth.gr;

■ Personal Data
Date/Place of Birth: 10 October 1950, Greece; Citizenship: Hellenic/US
Private address: 2 Olympiados Str., N. Krini, GR-55132, Thessaloniki, Greece. Tel.: +30-2310-444386
1010 College Avenue, MI-49931, Houghton, USA. Tel.: +1-906-482-3483
■ Academic Degrees
 National Technical University of Athens, Mining and Metallurgy (Diploma/BS-MS, 1973)
 University of Minnesota, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science-Mechanics (Ph.D, 1975)
■ Academic Posts
 University of Minnesota (Instructor 1975-76)
 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Assistant Professor 1976-80)
 University of Minnesota (Visiting Professor 1980-82)
 Michigan Tech Univ (Professor 1982-2000); Distinguished Research Professor 2000-2010; Emeritus 2010-)
 Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Professor after special honorary invitation/metaklisi, 1990-)
 King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Distinguished Adjunct Professor 2011- 2014)
 ITMO Univ/Int Lab of Modern Functional Materials, St. Petersburg (Distinguished Visiting Professor 2014, 2015)
 BUCEA/Beijing Univ. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Beijing (Distinguished Visiting Professor 2015, 2016)
■ Academic Distinctions
 Fellowship Award for 1 mo Visit to USSR/US Academy of Sciences, 1986
 MTU Research Award, Michigan Tech Univ, Houghton/MI, 1993
 Fellowship Award for 1 mo Visit to Japan/Japanese Government, 1996
 ASME’s Koiter Award, 2000 (1st runner up - Lost by one vote; 2 of his greek colleagues in US voted for Maier)
 ASME/ASCE/SES Symposium honoring his 55th birthday, 1-3 June 2005, Baton Rouge/USA [Appendix II]
 Selected for ASM’s Author Award (for his article in Metal. Mater. Trans. A 42, 2985-2998, 2011)
 Acknowledged in G.A. Maugin’s Continuum Mechanics Through the 20th Century: A Coincise Historical
Perspective, Springer, 2013. [Chapter 10.6.3/Greece: P.S. Theocaris, P.D. Panagiotopoulos, E.C. Aifantis, G.M.
 Listed in ISI Web of most highly cited authors in the world: ENGINEERING (3rd entry. A0086-2010-N out of 262)
 KACST Award/King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-Saudi Arabia, 2013
 Distinguished Foreign Scientist Fellowship Award/Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu-China, 2014
 Aifantis International Symposium honoring his 65th birthday, 4-9 October, 2015, Antalya/Turkey [Appendix II]
 Fray International Sustainability Award (along with Nobel Laureate El-Ichi Negishi)/Flogen Star Outreach, 2015
■ Teaching and Research
 Undergraduate Courses in Statics and Dynamics; Strength and Mechanics of Materials; Elasticity and Visoelasticity;
Plasticity and Damage; Creep and Fracture
 Graduate Courses in Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics; Mechanical Behavior: Metals – Rocks/Soils –
Polymers – Biomaterials; Materials Science: Dislocations – Diffusion – Phase Transformations; Micromechanics and
Nanomechanics; Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies
 Training Seminars/Course Modules on the above topics in Summer Schools and Multi-University Curricula
 Interdisciplinary Research on Macro/Micro/Nano Mechanics of Materials and Structures; Diffusion and Flow
through Deformable Porous Media; Stress Corrosion Cracking and Environmental Damage; Phase Transitions and
Interfaces; Material Instabilities: Dislocation Patterning/Shear Banding/Damage Localization; Coupled Continuum
Mechanics of Structured Natural Materials: Soils/Rocks/Wood/Biomaterials; Thermo-electro-chemo-mechanics of
Engineering Materials: Metals/Polymers/Concrete/Composites; Novel Nanostructured Materials/Structures and
Devices: Nanoparticles/Nanotubes/Nanowires, Nanofibers/Nanobeams/Nanoplates, MEMS/NEMS, Li-ion Batteries
(LiBs), Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs), Medical Implants, Nano-decorated tissues and cells
 Coined in his publications the terms Double Diffusivity/Porosity, Chemomechanics, Material Instabilities,
Dislocation Patterning, Gradient Plasticity, Nanomechanics, NanoNeuroMechanics
■ Funding I (Last 5 years)
 PI: Greek National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF): “Funding of Research Projects Positively Reviewed in
the 5th ERC Grant Schemes Call: Internal Length Gradient Mechanics Across Scales and Materials: Theory,
Experiments and Applications/IL-GradMech-ASM”, 2013-2015, 797 kEuros
 PI: General Secretariat of Research and Technology (GSRT): “ARISTEIA II: Size Effects in Deformation and
Electromechanical Problems/SEDEMP”, 2014-2015, 283 kEuros
 Co-PI: Multi-investigator EU project: ERANET-RUS “STProjects-219/NanoPhase: Shift of the phase equilibria in
nanograined materials”, 2012-2015, 207 kEuros
 Co-PI: Multi-investigator project from the Greek Ministry of Education: “THALES INTERMONU: Conservation
and Restoration of Monuments of Cultural Heritage”, 2012-2015, 600 kEuros
 Host: K.E. Aifantis – the youngest recipient ever with an ERC Starting Grant (MINATRAN 211166, 2008-2013,
1.130k Euros); A.E. Romanov - an international expert on defects in solids with a IIF Marie - Curie Senior Fellowship
Grant (PIIF-GA-2008-220419, 2009-2011, 200 kEuros)
■ Funding II (15 years; 1992-2007)
 Director/Co-Director of Human Capital and Research Training Network projects (HCM/TMR/RTN), INTAS
projects, Euratom projects (REVISA, LISSAC), as well as the General Secretariat of Research and Technology
(GSRT) projects (PENED, PYTHAGORAS), as follows: Coordinator of 3 European Research Training Networks:
HCM Fellowships in Mechanics of Materials /ERBCHBGCT 920041, 1992-1996, 240 kEuros; TMR Network on
Spatiotemporal Instabilities in Deformation and Fracture/ERBFMRXCT 960062, 1996-2002, 1760 kEuros; RTN
Network on Deformation and Fracture Instabilities in Novel Materials and Processes/HPRNCT-2002-00198, 2002-
2007, 1500 kEuros; Partner of RTN Network on Degradation and Instabilities in Geomaterials with Application to
Hazard Mitigation/HPRNCT-2002-00220, 2002-2006, 1600 kEuros. Coordinator of 3 INTAS Projects (INTAS-93-
3213; INTAS-93-3213 – extension; INTAS-94-4380) in addition to PENED and PYTHAGORAS Grants from the
Greek Government. Partner of 2 European projects on Nuclear Reactor Safety (REVISA/FI4S-CT96-0024, 1997-
2000, and LISSAC/FIKS-CT1999-00012, 2000-2002, coordinated by J. Devos/France and R. Krieg/Germany
respectively) by focusing on size effects and component failure using ECA’s theory of gradient thermoplasticity and
damage. The total amount of the INTAS/PENED/PYTHAGORAS and REVISA/LISSAC projects for ECA’s Lab
was about 1 million Euros.
 PI/Co-PI of a number of US projects supported by NSF, ARMY, ARO/NATO and other International Organizations
(China, Japan, Saudi Arabia) totalling ~12 million USD. The most recent grant from US/NSF (Novel Experiments
and Models for the Nanomechanics of Polymeric and Biological Nanofibers, NSF NIRT Grant DMI #0532320, 2004-
2008, 1.3M USD) was carried out in collaboration with Michigan Tech, U. of Illinois (I. Chasiotis), U. of Virginia
(L. Zhigilei), U. of Minnesota (R. Ballarini), and Case Western (S. Eppel).
 Co-Founder of a Degree Awarding Graduate Program on Nanosciences and Technologies, at Aristotle University in
Greece (http://nn.physics.auth.gr/) and of similar programs in US: NUE – Undergraduate Exploration of Nano-
Science, Applications, and Societal Implications; Enterprise/Minor in Nanoscale Science and Engineering at
Michigan Tech (http://nano.mtu.edu/nueindex.htm; http://nano.mtu.edu/nanominor.htm).
■ PhD Students/Postdocs
 Advisor/Co-advisor of ~20 PhDs and supervisor of ~30 postdocs. Many of these hold university positions in the US,
EU, Russia and China. Examples include former PhDs Doug Bammann (Professor at Mississippi State), Hussein Zbib
(Professor and former Chair at Washington State) and David Unger (Professor, Univ of Evansville); former
postdocs/visiting scholars Andrzej Neimitz (Professor at Kielce University of Technology), Oleg Naimark (Professor
at Perm State Univ), Chongqing Ru (Professor at University of Alberta), Alexey Romanov (Professor and Director at
ITMO University), Harm Askes (Professor and Head at Univ of Sheffield), Michael Zaiser (Professor at the Univ of
Erlangen-Nürnberg) and Kaiyu Xu (Professor at Shanghai Univ). Four of his more recent PhD students at Aristotle
Univ - A. Konstantinidis/ M. Avlonitis/G. Efremidis and I. Mastorakos - are assistant professors at greek universities
(Thessaloniki/Corfu/Volos) and at Clarkson/US, respectively. Two of his recent postdocs K. Moutsopoulos and A.
Kalampakas are associate professor (Democritus Univ of Thrace) and assistant professor (American Univ of the
Middle East), respectively. Former PhD students in the US (R. Wilson, P. Taylor, T. Webb, X. Zhu, J. Huang) hold
key positions in National Labs and Research Government Organizations.
■ Diploma/Masters Students and Visiting Scientists
 Supervisor of ~15 Diploma/Master theses and of ~20 young researchers/visiting scientists in joint university projects.
Examples of those holding academic positions in US include I. Chasiotis (Professor at Univ of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign) and K. Kalaitzidou (associate professor at Georgia Tech). Other examples of former postdocs and shortterm
(3-9 mo) visitors supported by the TMR/RTN/INTAS programs, and currently holding academic positions,
include M. Gutkin/St. Petersburg, M. Seefeldt/Leuven, M. Lazar/Darmstadt, X. Zhang/Chengdu, G. Ferro/Torino, P.
Cornetti/Torino, C. di Prisco/Milano, N. Pugno/Trento, G. Ribarik/Budapest, J.V. Andersen/Paris.
 Other young scientists/short-term visitors who spent time in his Lab and currently hold academic positions include A.
Nikitas (Univ of Huddersfield), N. Nikitas (Univ of Leeds), N.-H. Zhang (Univ of Shanghai), H. Xu (Shanghai
Jiaotong Univ), Y. Chen/R. Yang (CAS/LNM – Beijing), A. Chattopadhyay (Aston Univ), M. Mousavi (Aalto Univ).
■ Collaborators/Distinguished Visitors
 Senior long-term collaborators who conducted joint projects or research visits in his Lab include J. Kratochvil
(Prague), P. Perzyna (Warsaw), Z. Mroz (Warsaw), D. Beskos (Minnesota/Patras), N. Triantafyllidis (Ann
Arbor/Paris), E. Gdoutos (Xanthi/Northwestern), I. Vardoulakis (Minnesota/Athens), Y. Dafalias (Davis), N. Aravas
(Pennsylvania/Volos), H. Mühlhaus (CSIRO/Queensland), G. Frantziskonis (Arizona), G. Voyiadjis (Louisiana), A.
Varias (Malmö), I. Groma (Budapest), J. Willis/N. Fleck (Cambridge), G. Maugin (Paris), A. Carpinteri (Torino), R.
de Borst (Delft/Glasgow/Sheffield), R. Ballarini (Case Western/Minnesota/Houston), S. Forest (Paris), P. Steinmann
 World-known contributors who were hosted in his Lab in US include Clifford Truesdell, Dan Drucker, Cemal
Eringen, Jerry Ericksen, Jim Serrin, Frank Nabarro, as well as the Chemistry Nobel Laureate Ilya Prigogine. At
Aristotle University he hosted, among others, A. Ngan (Hong Kong), J. Goddard (San Diego), Yilong Bai (Beijing),
Gerard Maugin (Paris) and Constantino Tsallis (Rio).
■ Seminars/Lectures and Conferences
 Invited in ~500 occasions to speak in conferences, universities, and research laboratories in the US, Europe, Former
Soviet Union, Russia, Australia, Japan, South Africa, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, China. The majority of his lectures in
conferences and symposia/workshops were invited, keynote and plenary. Examples of plenary lectures in the last 10
years include: Plenary Lecture in the 16th European Conference on Fracture/ECF16, 2-8 July 2006,
Alexandroupolis/Greece; Plenary Lecture in the 6th South African Conference on Computational and Applied
Mechanics/SACA-2008, 26-28 March 2008, Cape Town/South Africa; Plenary Lecture in the 10th Asia-Pacific
Conference on Engineering Plasticity and its Applications/AEPA-2010, 15-17 November 2010 Wuhan/China;
Plenary Lecture in the 5th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics/MSCMP-
2010, 13-17 September 2010, Chisinau/Moldova; Plenary Lecture in the 7th WSEAS International Conference on
Continuum Mechanics, 14-17 July 2012, Kos/Greece; Plenary Lecture in the 12th International Conference of
Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics/INCAAM-2014, 22-28 September 2014, Rhodes/Greece; Plenary
Lecture in the Shechtman International Symposium, 29 June – 4 July 2014, Cancun/Mexico; Plenary Lecture in the
1st Sino-Russian-Belarusian Joint Scientific-Technical Forum, 15-17 September 2015, Beijing/China; and a
forthcoming Plenary Lecture in the XLIV International Conference in Advanced Problems in Mechanics, June 27-
July 2 2016, St. Petersburg.
 Organizer/Co-organizer of ~20 International Conferences/Symposia/Workshops and Member of Organizing
Committees of ~50 Scientific Meetings. Examples include: E.C. Aifantis and J.P. Hirth, International Symposium on
the Mechanics of Dislocations, 50 years since the Discovery of Dislocations with a Tribute to J.D. Eshelby, 28-31
August 1983, Houghton, Michigan/USA; E.C. Aifantis, International Conference on Mechanics, Physics and
Structure of Materials: A Celebration of Aristotle’s 23 Centuries, 19-24 August 1990, Thessaloniki/Greece; E.C.
Aifantis, 2nd Euroconference and International Symposium on Materials Instabilities in Deformation and Fracture,
31 August – 4 September 1997, Thessaloniki/Greece; E.C. Aifantis, 5th EuroMech Solid Mechanics Conference
(ESMC-5), 17-22 August 2003, Thessaloniki/Greece; E.C. Aifantis, 1st World Symposium on Multiscale Material
Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, Dedicated to the Memory of Frank Nabarro, Edward Hart and Ronald Rivlin,
29 April – 3 May 2007, Thessaloniki/Greece; E. Meletis, E.C. Aifantis and E. Kaxiras, 1st International Conference:
From Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials to Nanodevices and Nanosystems (1st IC4N-2008), 16-18 June 2008,
Halkidiki Penninsula/Greece; Y. Dafalias, E.C Aifantis and L. Toth, Symposium on Generalized Granular
Mechanics, 2016 EMI International Conference, 25-27 October 2016, Metz/France; F. Kongoli, E.C. Aifantis, H.
Wang and T. Zhu, YANG International Symposium on Multiscale Material Mechanics and Multiphysics and
Sustainable Applications (in honor of Life-time Achievements of Prof. Wei Yang – President of Natural Science
Foundation of China), 6-10 November 2016, Hainan Island/China.
 Symposia Honoring ECA’s Contributions: Joint ASME/ASCE/SES Symposium honoring his 55th birthday, 1-3 June
2005, Baton Rouge, USA [Organizers: D.J. Bammann, H.M. Zbib, P. Sofronis]; Flogen Star Outreach Symposium
honoring his 65th birthday, 4-9 October 2015, Antalya, Turkey [Organizers: F. Kongoli, S. Bordas, Y. Estrin.]
■ Editorships and Editorial Boards
 Editor/Co-Editor: 12 Books/Special Journal Issues and Conference Proceedings. Examples include: E.C. Aifantis and
L. Davison, Media with Microstructures and Wave Propagation, Special Issue of Int. J. Engng. Science 212, 961-
1224, 1984; E.C. Aifantis and J.P. Hirth, The Mechanics of Dislocations [248 pages], ASM, Metals Park, 1985; E.C.
Aifantis and J. Gittus, Phase Transformations [302 pages], Elsevier Appl. Sci. Publ., London-New York, 1986.
 Editor-in-Chief: J. Mechanical Behavior of Materials (ISSN 0334-8938); Honorary Editor of Computer and
Experimental Simulations in Engineering and Science (ISSN 1791-3829).
 Advisory/Editorial Board Member: Reviews on Advanced Materials Science (ISSN 1605-8127); Materials Physics
and Mechanics (ISSN 1605-8119); Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica (ISSN 0894-9166); Mechanical Sciences (ISSN
2191-9151); J. Control Engineering and Technology (ISSN 2223-2036); Open Mechanics Journal (ISSN 1874-
1584), J. Adv. Microelectronic Engng. (ISSN 2327-7599); Open Conf. Proc. J. (ISSN 2210-2892); Scientific and
Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ISSN 2226-1494).
 Former Editorial Boards: Acta Mechanica (ISSN 0001-5970), J. Nano Research (ISSN 1662-5250); Mechanics of
Cohesive-Frictional Materials (ISSN 1099-1484); Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics (ISSN 106-
■ Publications/Citations
 Published over 550 articles in scientific journals, book chapters/proceedings, and technical reports
 Cited: ~8380 times/45 h-index (ISI); ~8370 times/44 h-index (Scopus); ~13450 times/57 h-index (Google Scholar)
 ISIHighlyCited.com: Included in the 2001 ISI Web of knowledge list of most highly cited authors in ENGINEERING
(3rd entry no. A0086-2010-N out of 262)
 3 most Highly Cited single authorship articles: E.C. Aifantis, On the microstructural origin of certain inelastic
models, J. Engng. Mat. Tech. 106, 326-330, 1984. [ISI: 582, Scopus: 758; Google Scholar: 1142; 5th mostly cited
article of the Journal]; E.C. Aifantis, The physics of plastic deformation, Int. J. Plasticity 3, 211-247, 1987. [ISI: 521,
Scopus: 486; Google Scholar: 814; 7th mostly cited article of the Journal]; E.C. Aifantis, On the role of gradients in
the localization of deformation and fracture, Int. J. Engrg. Sci. 30, 1279-1299, 1992. [ISI: 359, Scopus: 378; Google
Scholar: 580; 10th mostly cited article of the Journal.]
 12 Most Cited Articles [Full List of Publications in Appendix I]
1. E.C. Aifantis, On the microstructural origin of certain inelastic models, Transactions of ASME, J. Engng. Mat. Tech. 106,
326-330 (1984). [Citations: 758/Scopus, 582/ISI, 1142/Google Scholar]
2. E.C. Aifantis, The physics of plastic deformation, Int. J. Plasticity 3, 211-247 (1987). [Citations: 486/Scopus, 521/ISI,
814/Google Scholar]
3. E.C. Aifantis, On the role of gradients in the localization of deformation and fracture, Int. J. Engrg. Sci. 30, 1279-1299 (1992).
[Citations: 378/Scopus, 359/ISI, 580/Google Scholar]
4. H.B. Muhlhaus and E.C. Aifantis, A variational principle for gradient plasticity, Int. J. Solids Struct. 28, 845-857 (1991). [Citations:
Scopus not listed, 433/ISI, 694/Google Scholar]
5. E.C. Aifantis, Update on a class of gradient theories, Mechanics of Materials 35, 259-280 (2003). [Citations: 232/Scopus,
215/ISI, 281/Google Scholar]
6. E.C. Aifantis, Strain gradient interpretation of size effects, Int. J. Fract. 95, 299-314 (1999). [Citations: 221/Scopus, 171/ISI,
305/Google Scholar]
7. H.M. Zbib and E.C. Aifantis, On the localization and postlocalization behavior of plastic deformation - I: On the initiation of
shear bands, Res Mechanica 23, 261-277 (1988). [Citations: 188/Scopus, 177/ISI, 274/Google Scholar]
8. N. Triantafyllidis and E.C. Aifantis, A gradient approach to localization of deformation - I. Hyperelastic materials, J. of
Elasticity 16, 225-238 (1986). [Citations: 192/Scopus, 192/ISI, 297/Google Scholar]
9. M. Ke, S.A. Hackney, W.W. Milligan, and E.C. Aifantis, Observation and measurement of grain rotation and plastic strain in
nanostructured metal thin films, Nanostructured Materials 5, 689-698 (1995). [Citations: 178/Scopus, 183/ISI, 236/Google
10. C.Q. Ru and E.C. Aifantis, A simple approach to solve boundary value problems in gradient elasticity, Acta Mechanica 101,
59-68 (1993). [Citations: 168/Scopus, 165/ISI, 248/Google Scholar]
11. E.C. Aifantis, On the problem of diffusion in solids, Acta Mechanica 37, 265-296, 1980. [Citations: 173/Scopus, 168/ISI,
267/Google Scholar]
12. H. Askes and E.C. Aifantis, Gradient elasticity in statics and dynamics: An overview of formulations, length scale
identification procedures, finite element implementations and new results, Int. J. Solids Struct. 48, 1962-1990, 2011.
[Citations: 137/Scopus, 124/ISI, 185/Google Scholar]
 Research Topics Pioneered by ECA and Discussed in Books Published by Other Distinguished Authors: Over the past
three decades, ECA’s research has stimulated the organization of various specialized workshops/conferences and the
publication of journal special issues and book chapters. Chapter 89 of the book by M. Gurtin/E. Fried/L. Anand (The
Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Continua, Cambridge Univ Press, UK, 2010) is dedicated to his theory of
“gradient plasticity” and Chapter 6 of the book by Nobel Laureate I. Prigogine and G. Nicolis (Exploring
Complexity, Freeman, New York, 1989) is dedicated to his approach (with D. Walgraef) on “dislocation patterning”.
A discussion of the Walgraef-Aifantis (W-A) model on PSBs formation is also provided in Chapter 2.6 of a book by
S. Suresh (Fatigue of Materials, Cambridge Univ Press, UK, 1991) and in Chapter 2.7.3 of the 2nd Edition, 2001. His
theory on “gradient elasticity” as applied to elimination of singularities from dislocation lines is the subject of
Chapter 3.1.1 of another recent book by M.Yu. Gutkin and I.A. Ovid’ko (Plastic Deformation in Nanocrystalline
Materials, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, 2004). The W-A model (as well as the role of gradients in
plastic instabilities) is also discussed extensively in a recent book by N. Ghoniem and D. Walgraef (Instabilities and
Self-Organization in Materials, Oxford Univ Press, UK, 2008). Finally, a brief discussion of his research
contributions was included in Chapter 10.6.3 in a book by G.A. Maugin (Continuum Mechanics Through the 20th
Century: A Coincise Historical Perspective, Springer, 2013).
■ Research Interdisciplinarity / Innovation
 ECA’s broad research background and international collaborations have led to several world-wide recognized
interdisciplinary contributions in the mechanics and physics of materials and structures. His work – combining
fundamental theory, mathematical modeling, numerical simulations and experiments – has found numerous
applications in various disciplines across engineering sciences and departments, including mining and civil, materials
and mechanical, chemical and electrical engineering. This wide spectrum of research activity is partly due to a
multifaceted education (first Diploma in mining and metallurgy/NTU-Athens; PhD in mechanics – chemical
engineering and materials science/U of Minnesota), as well as to multiple academic posts (first in the Dept of
Theoretical and Applied Mechanics/U of Illinois-Urbana; later in the Dept of Chemical Engineering and Materials
Science/U of Minnesota and the Dept of Mechanical Engineering – Engineering Mechanics/Michigan Tech; and,
finally, in the Dept of Civil Engineering/Aristotle Univ of Thessaloniki). The areas that his theories and models have
been applied vary from traditional (flow/diffusion through deformable fissured rocks; damage/failure of geomaterials,
asphalts and concrete; deformation and fracture of metals, polymers and composites) to emerging ones
(nanopolycrystals and metallic glasses; MEMS/NEMS and optoelectronic films; biomaterials and tissues/bonecollagen-
soft tissues-cells).
 He revised and brought ideas of van der Waals (non-monotone equations of state and higher-order density gradients)
and Maxwell (diffusive drag and higher-order temperature gradients), as well as of Landau (order parameter and nonconvex
free energy) and Prigogine (non-equilibrium thermodynamics and self-organization) into the mechanics of
materials and structures within a multiscale/multiphysics setting. This allowed for the development of new
approaches to address unresolved issues (spatio-temporal pattern formation, interpretation of size effects, elimination
of stress/strain singularities) in this field. The topics/terms of “double diffusivity” and “double porosity”, “stressassisted
diffusion”, “material instabilities”, “dislocation patterning”, “chemomechanics”, and “nanomechanics” were
first introduced/quoted and dealt with in his publications. He pioneered the approach of “gradient plasticity” by
providing a method to calculate shear band widths and spacings, and eliminate the mesh-size dependence of finite
element calculations in the strain softening regime. He simplified and popularized the approach of “gradient
elasticity” by providing the first non-singular solutions for dislocation lines and crack tips. These results, which
become increasingly important as the specimen/component dimensions reduce down to micron and nano levels, can
now be checked against laboratory and numerical tests which are possible with advanced experimental probes and
powerful computers. Variants of his gradient theories in elasticity, plasticity and damage are extensively used today
for interpreting size effects across the scale spectrum, as well as for fitting experimental data on the mechanical
behavior of micro/nano-objects (micro/nanopillars, nanobeams, nanotubes).
 More recently, he enriched the aforementioned gradient models with randomness effects, in order to assess the
competition between deterministic gradients and stochastic terms due to internal stress fluctuations. He was among
the first to introduce the techniques of bifurcation, stability and self-organization into the field of material mechanics
and continues along these lines by introducing new tools recently developed in the field of nonlinear and statistical
physics. As examples, reference is made to his recent articles on non-extensive thermodynamics and Tsallis qstatistics,
as well as on fractional calculus and fractal media for characterizing deformation, damage and failure of
nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine grain (UFG) materials, as well as bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). Most recently, he
has considered gradient multiphysics couplings (gradient thermo-chemo-mechanics and opto-electro-mechanics) for
these novel “structural” materials and extended his work to encompass “energetic” materials, including “defect-free”
nanolayers for next generation light emitting diodes (LEDs) and “strain relief” nanostructured electrodes for
rechargeable Li-ion batteries (LiBs). He is also exploring the applicability of these techniques for addressing the
mechano-chemo-electrical response of neural cells/neurons.
 The above research activity was carried out in collaboration with former students and postdocs, as well as senior
scientists in the US, Europe, Russia and China. Co-authors include profound mathematicians (Jim Serrin/Minnesota,
James Hill/Australia, Vasily Tarasov/Moscow), mechanicians (Gerard Maugin/Paris, Rene de Borst/Glasgow-Delft,
Hans Muhlhaus/Germany), physicists (Daniel Walgraef/Brussels, Alexey Romanov/St. Petersburg, Jeff de
Hosson/The Netherlands), and materials scientists (Bill Gerberich/Minnesota, Ladislas Kubin/France, Yuri
Estrin/Australia). A number of leading material mechanics contributors in academia have been his students (Doug
Bammann/Mississippi, Hussein Zbib/Washington, Ioannis Chasiotis/Urbana) or postdocs (Harm Askes/Sheffield,
Mike Zaiser/Edinburgh-Erlangen, Alexey Romanov/St. Petersburg, Chongqing Ru/Alberta, Michail Gutkin/St.
 In the last five years major funding of ~ 3 million Euros has been awarded to his Lab through the European Research
Council (ERC) and the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology (GSRT) to establish an International
Research Center on “Materials and Processes across Scales and Disciplines” at the Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki (AUT), even though this effort is currently facing difficulties due to local financial constraints imposed
on the country. Nevertheless, nonlocal interactions with US (Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics at the
University of Arizona), China (State Key Lab of Nonlinear Mechanics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and
Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture), Russia (International Lab of Modern Functional Materials
at ITMO University, St. Petersburg), are successfully carried out, in addition to former collaborations with EU
■ Research Milestones / Impact
 In the mid 1970’s – while at the Dept of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Univ of Illinois at Urbana – ECA
started with his students the effort of bringing into the field of solid mechanics ideas from diffusion theory, chemical
reactions, and nonlinear physics. They developed “stress-assisted diffusion” theories with applications to hydrogen
embrittlement and stress corrosion cracking, “double diffusivity and 2-temperature” theories for modeling
simultaneous transport in the bulk and grain boundaries of polycrystals, as well as “double porosity” theories for
modeling fluid flow in undeformable and deformable fractured rocks with applications to consolidation and
subsidence. This initial work on internal mass transport motivated the concept of viewing a stressed solid at the
macroscale as an active medium whose deformation is governed by the production/annihilation and transport of
defect populations (dislocations, disclinations), which interact with the defect-free material regions according to the
laws of microscopic physics. His robust and inspiring models of gradient dislocation dynamics and gradient plasticity
that became quite popular later on, were essentially based on the above idea.
 In the early 1980’s (jointly with Jim Serrin), while at the University of Minnesota, he revisited Maxwell’s equal area
rule and van der Waals theory of fluid interfaces within a strictly mechanical framework by incorporating higher
order density gradients in the non-monotonous constitutive expression for the interfacial stress tensor. Among the
results were the relocation of Maxwell’s line (i.e. the establishment of non-universality of Maxwell’s rule for liquidvapor
transitions) and the derivation of transition, reversal and periodic solutions for fluid/solid microstructures. This
work motivated, in part, a number of articles in applied mathematics (Coleman, Gurtin, Slemrod, Truskinovski and
others) in the area of non-convex free energy and continuum phase transitions.
 In the mid 1980’s (jointly with Daniel Walgraef), while at Michigan Tech, he developed the first generation models
to interpret self-organization of dislocations and deformation patterning. The Walgraef-Aifantis (W-A) model was the
first to predict widths and spacings of the layered dislocation structure of the persistent slip bands observed in
fatigued crystals as discussed, for example, in Chapter 6 of the Nobel Laureate’s Ilya Prigogine’s book “Exploring
Complexity”, Freeman, New York (1989). This work inspired a steady stream of follow-up efforts on dislocation
patterning, including recent papers on discrete and density-based dislocation dynamics simulations (e.g. Kubin,
Ghoniem, Zbib, Groma, El-Azab, Zaiser, Ngan and others). Most notably, the W-A model has recently been used by
leading geophysicists/geomechanics researchers to interpret crack patterns in granular materials (A. Ord and B.
Hobbs, Fracture pattern formation in frictional, cohesive, granular material, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 368, 95-118, 2010
[One contribution of 17 to a Theme Issue “Patterns in our Planet: Applications of Multi-scale Non-equilibrium
Thermodynamics to Earth-system Science”] ).
 In the mid and late 1980’s, while at Michigan Tech, he proposed the first gradient plasticity model to predict the
thickness of shear bands and eliminate the mesh-size dependence of finite element (FE) calculations in the strain
softening regime. This was used in FE codes developed by de Borst, Tomita and others to solve large-scale
engineering problems for which classical plasticity did not work. Other gradient plasticity models, such as those
proposed by Fleck/Hutchinson, Nix/Gao/Huang and co-workers, were developed later in the mid - and late – nineties,
and a large number of distinguished researchers (Fleck/Willis, Anand/Gurtin, Geers/Peerlings,
Estrin/Sluys,Voyiadjis, Polizzotto, Forest to mention a few) made seminal contributions in this area for interpreting
size effects and other phenomena at the micron scale.
 In the early and mid 1990’s – in collaboration with his experimental colleagues at Michigan Tech (Walter Milligan
and Steve Hackney) – he directed a project on nanostructured materials and “coined” the term “nanomechanics” as he
did earlier with “dislocation patterning” and “material instabilities”. They identified, theoretically and
experimentally, the critical grain size regime where plasticity transition occurs from grain rotation/sliding in the
absence of dislocation activity to intragranular avalanche-like dislocation motion. This mechanism has also been
numerically confirmed by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations later performed by Swygenhoven’s group at PSISwitzerland.
For bulk ultrafine and nanograin materials they discovered another plasticity transition mechanism
controlled by “multiple” or “massive” shear banding without any hardening, not observed for the conventional grain
size counterparts of these materials which are always strain-hardened. These micro/nanoplasticity mechanisms are
now routinely observed in nanocrystalline (NC) and ultrafine grain (UFG) materials produced by severe plastic
deformation (SPD), as well as in bulk metallic glasses (BMGs).
 Since 2000, while at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, he continued with students and postdocs by employing his
earlier work on gradient elasticity and plasticity to address some key-unresolved issues in mechanics. They expanded
on dislocation and crack non-singular solutions (previously derived with his co-workers Altan, Gutkin, Ru et al) by
deriving new robust and easy-to-use expressions for the local microscopic stresses and strains on the basis of his
simple gradient elasticity (GradEla) model – a topic which has recently become popular in Greece (Vardoulakis,
Beskos, Exadaktylos, Georgiadis, Aravas, Giannakopoulos) and elsewhere (EU, US, China), since Mindlin’s original
but complex work which remained dormant for 30 years. Work also focused on dislocations/disclinations and
cracks/interfaces, as well as nanomaterials including nanotubes and nanomembranes. Gradient multi-element defect
kinetics were used to capture mechanical behavior at the nanoscale and obtain stability and defect patterning results
for thin films and small volumes. Wavelet analysis and neural networks were used for bridging the length scale
spectrum. Main senior collaborators in this area included A. Romanov / I. Ovid’ko (St. Petersburg, Russia) on defect
theory; A. Carpinteri / N. Pugno (Torino, Italy) on fractals and size effects; S. Forest (Ecole des Mines, France) and
P. Steinmann (Univ of Erlangen, Germany) on gradient plasticity; H. Askes (Univ of Sheffield) and M. Lazar (Tech
Univ of Darmstadt)/G. Maugin (Univ of Paris VI) on gradient elasticity; M. Zaiser (Univ of Edinburgh/Erlangen-
Nürnberg) on stochastic dynamics/avalanches and random plasticity; I. Groma (Eotvos Univ Hungary) on discrete
dislocation dynamics, and I. Vardoulakis (NTU-Athens, Greece) on soil mechanics and granular media.
 Since 2005, with his students and postdocs, he used variants of his earlier gradient elasticity and plasticity models to
interpret the deformation/fracture behavior and size effects observed during microtensile, microbending and
micro/nanoindentation tests. The results compared very well with corresponding molecular dynamics (MD) and
discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations for such micro/nano-objects (MEMS/NEMS, micro/nanobeams,
micro/nanoplates). They provided support of Nobel Laureate’s Richard Smalley (American Scientist 85, 324, 1997)
quotation “The Laws of Continuum Mechanics are amazingly robust for treating even intrinsically discrete objects
only a few atoms in diameter” by replacing “Continuum Mechanics” with “Gradient Continuum Mechanics”.
 Since 2008 his Lab activities were expanded to consider advanced energy materials/components, such as light
emitting diodes (with A. Romanov) and Li-ion batteries/LiBs (with K.E. Aifantis). This became possible through a
Marie-Curie Senior Fellowship (A. Romanov) on Nanomechanics of Defects in Solids with applications to thin films,
nanoparticles, nanocrystals and biomaterials and an ERC-Starting Grant (K.E. Aifantis) on Probing the Micro-Nano
Transition/MINATRAN, respectively. The major equipment that was purchased to conduct nanoindentation (NI) and
atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies for the above projects, was also used to initiate research on polymeric and
hydrophobic/hydrophilic materials for monument protection/cultural heritage preservation, as well as for novel
mechano-electro-chemical studies on neural cells.
 Since 2012 collaborations have been extended to include fractional derivatives and fractal media (jointly with V.
Tarasov at Moscow State University), zonal disintegration in deep underground tunnels (jointly with C. Qi at Beijing
University of Civil Engineering and Architecture) and, most recently, neuromechanics and medical imaging (jointly
with neurologists at AUT and Karolinska – work in progress).



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